論工業社會及其未來-84

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另一個人們滿足他們對權力進程的需求的方式是透過替代性活動。如我們在第 38–40 段解釋過的,替代性活動是指向人造目標的活動,一個人追求人造目標是為了從追求目標中獲得「滿足感」,而不是他真的必須要達到這個目標。舉例來說,鍛鍊出巨大的肌肉、將一個小球擊入一個小洞裡或獲得一套完整的郵票組沒有任何實用的動機。然而我們社會的很多人充滿熱情的投入健身、高球或集郵。某些人比另一些人更「他人導向」,因此將更容易只因為他們周遭的人或社會認為某個替代性活動很重要就因此重視這個替代性活動。這就是為什麼有些人對於一些基本上無關緊要的活動非常認真,例如運動、橋牌、象棋或晦澀的學術研究,而其他頭腦比較清楚的人從來只把這些活動當成替代性活動,因此從來沒有足夠重視它們以此滿足權力進程。再來僅需指出在許多情況下一個人的謀生方式也是替代性活動。不是純然的替代性活動,因為這個活動的部分動機是獲取生活必需品以及(對某些人來說)社會地位及受廣告影響而想擁有的奢侈品。但許多人在工作上花費遠超過賺取他們所需的金錢和地位的努力,而這些額外的努力構成了替代性活動。這額外的努力和伴隨的情感投入是這個系統不斷發展和完善的最強大力量,並為個人的自由造成負面的後果(見 131 段)。特別是對於最有創造力的科學家和工程師來說,工作往往大部分是替代性活動。這個論點重要到值得單獨討論,我們隨後就會討論到(第 87–92 段)。

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Another way in which people satisfy their need for the power process is through surrogate activities. As we explained in paragraphs 38–40, a surrogate activity is an activity that is directed toward an artificial goal that the individual pursues for the sake of the “fulfillment” that he gets from pursuing the goal, not because he needs to attain the goal itself. For instance, there is no practical motive for building enormous muscles, hitting a little ball into a hole or acquiring a complete series of postage stamps. Yet many people in our society devote themselves with passion to bodybuilding, golf or stamp-collecting. Some people are more “other-directed” than others, and therefore will more readily attach importance to a surrogate activity simply because the people around them treat it as important or because society tells them it is important. That is why some people get very serious about essentially trivial activities such as sports, or bridge, or chess, or arcane scholarly pursuits, whereas others who are more clear-sighted never see these things as anything but the surrogate activities that they are, and consequently never attach enough importance to them to satisfy their need for the power process in that way. It only remains to point out that in many cases a person’s way of earning a living is also a surrogate activity. Not a PURE surrogate activity, since part of the motive for the activity is to gain the physical necessities and (for some people) social status and the luxuries that advertising makes them want. But many people put into their work far more effort than is necessary to earn whatever money and status they require, and this extra effort constitutes a surrogate activity. This extra effort, together with the emotional investment that accompanies it, is one of the most potent forces acting toward the continual development and perfecting of the system, with negative consequences for individual freedom (see paragraph 131). Especially, for the most creative scientists and engineers, work tends to be largely a surrogate activity. This point is so important that it deserves a separate discussion, which we shall give in a moment (paragraphs 87–92).

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